Intrapulmonary thrombin generation and its relation to monomethylmethacrylate plasma levels during hip arthroplasty

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1992 May;36(4):331-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.1992.tb03477.x.


Frequent peroperative sampling of arterial and mixed venous blood was undertaken in eight consecutive patients during cemented hip arthroplasty to obtain a sequential picture of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and methylmethacrylate monomer (MMA) concentrations. TAT, detected neo-antigenically, reached its maximum levels after bone preparation, prior to introduction of cement and prosthesis. Furthermore, TAT values were higher in arterial than in mixed venous blood, indicating generation and inactivation of thrombin when blood is passing the lung. MMA concentration, measured by high pressure liquid chromatography, increased very rapidly and declined within 1 min following socket as well as shaft implantation, reaching the highest mean value of 3599 ng/ml only 30 s after femoral impaction of cement. MMA concentration was higher in mixed venous than in arterial blood, indicating elimination of the monomer during lung passage. This study confirms our previous observation that coagulation is activated prior to the implantation of bone cement and prosthesis into the femoral shaft; in addition, it provides further evidence of the thrombin-generating potential of the pulmonary capillary bed. Very frequent sampling was necessary to reveal the sharp rise in MMA levels following impaction of cement. Further investigations are needed to establish whether interaction between activated coagulation and MMA may predispose to cardiovascular complications.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antithrombin III / analysis
  • Female
  • Hip Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Lung / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Methylmethacrylates / analysis*
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptide Hydrolases / analysis
  • Thrombin / biosynthesis*


  • Methylmethacrylates
  • antithrombin III-protease complex
  • Antithrombin III
  • Peptide Hydrolases
  • Thrombin