Aim: To test whether the anorectic effect of nicotine may be amplified by caffeine.
Methods: Chewing gums with nicotine and caffeine were administered to 12 healthy young men of normal weight. Different combinations of 0, 1 or 2 mg of nicotine and 0, 50 or 100 mg of caffeine were applied during a 2-h period in a randomized, double blind, cross over design. Appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales.
Results: Hunger and prospective food consumption were negatively associated with the increasing doses of nicotine, whereas satiety and fullness were positively associated with the increasing doses of nicotine (p < 0.05). Caffeine appeared to amplify the effects of nicotine on hunger and fullness as a caffeine x nicotine x time interaction was observed in these scores (p < 0.05). The 2-mg dose of nicotine in combination with the 100-mg dose of caffeine caused nausea in four of the non-smokers. However, the effects of nicotine and the caffeine x nicotine x time interaction persisted after the exclusion of these subjects.
Conclusion: Caffeine added to nicotine chewing gum appears to amplify its attenuating effects on appetite and the combinations of 1-mg of nicotine with caffeine seem to be well tolerated.