The appetite-suppressant effect of nicotine is enhanced by caffeine

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Jul;7(4):327-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00389.x.


Aim: To test whether the anorectic effect of nicotine may be amplified by caffeine.

Methods: Chewing gums with nicotine and caffeine were administered to 12 healthy young men of normal weight. Different combinations of 0, 1 or 2 mg of nicotine and 0, 50 or 100 mg of caffeine were applied during a 2-h period in a randomized, double blind, cross over design. Appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales.

Results: Hunger and prospective food consumption were negatively associated with the increasing doses of nicotine, whereas satiety and fullness were positively associated with the increasing doses of nicotine (p < 0.05). Caffeine appeared to amplify the effects of nicotine on hunger and fullness as a caffeine x nicotine x time interaction was observed in these scores (p < 0.05). The 2-mg dose of nicotine in combination with the 100-mg dose of caffeine caused nausea in four of the non-smokers. However, the effects of nicotine and the caffeine x nicotine x time interaction persisted after the exclusion of these subjects.

Conclusion: Caffeine added to nicotine chewing gum appears to amplify its attenuating effects on appetite and the combinations of 1-mg of nicotine with caffeine seem to be well tolerated.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Appetite / drug effects
  • Appetite Depressants / administration & dosage*
  • Caffeine / administration & dosage*
  • Caffeine / adverse effects
  • Chewing Gum
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Synergism
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hunger / drug effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nausea / metabolism
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage*
  • Nicotine / adverse effects
  • Satiety Response / drug effects
  • Smoking


  • Appetite Depressants
  • Chewing Gum
  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine