Controlling nuclear receptors: the circular logic of cofactor cycles

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jul;6(7):542-54. doi: 10.1038/nrm1680.


Nuclear receptors regulate many biologically important processes in development and homeostasis by their bimodal function as repressors and activators of gene transcription. A finely tuned modulation of the transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors is crucial for determining highly specific and diversified programmes of gene expression. Recent studies have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms that are required to switch between repression and activation functions, the combinatorial roles of the multiple cofactor complexes that are required for mediating transcriptional regulation, and the central question of how several different signalling pathways can be integrated at the nuclear level to achieve specific profiles of gene expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Mammals
  • Models, Molecular
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear