According to recent data, arterial stiffness is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in both the general and renal populations. Because of several factors (vascular calcifications among them), large arteries are stiffer in patients with chronic kidney disease compared with the nonrenal population, contributing to the enormous cardiovascular mortality in renal patients. This review briefly analyzes methods for determination of arterial stiffness, focusing on 2 parameters, pulse wave velocity and the augmentation index, particularly useful in assessing arterial compliance in renal patients. Effects of different methods of renal replacement therapy on arterial wall properties also are discussed. Finally, the most promising novel and/or potential therapies regarding reduction of arterial stiffness in renal patients are reviewed.