The predictive value of a comprehensive model with personality characteristics, stressor related cognitions, coping and social support was tested in a sample of 187 nonpregnant women. The emotional response to the unsuccessful treatment was predicted out of vulnerability factors assessed before the start of the treatment. The results indicated the importance of neuroticism as a vulnerability factor in emotional response to a severe stressor. They also underlined the importance of helplessness and marital dissatisfaction as additional risk factors, and acceptance and perceived social support as additional protective factors, in the development of anxiety and depression after a failed fertility treatment. From clinical point of view, these results suggest fertility-related cognitions and social support should receive attention when counselling women undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment.