Since the first peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) were reported in 1980, EPS has been considered primarily a fatal complication. The incidence of EPS in PD patients has been reported to be from 0.7% to 7.3%, and the rate appears to be higher in patients receiving long-term treatment. Most data from Japan has shown an overall incidence of 2.5% with an evident negative effect of increasing duration of PD, which also augments mortality. Since EPS occurred after withdrawal from PD in more than half of the patients, strict monitoring is necessary when a long-term PD patient is withdrawn from PD. Maintaining patients on standard PD for more than 8 years using conventional solutions is associated with a substantial risk for development of EPS. Appropriate treatment according to the disease stage is most important in EPS treatment. Therefore, when examining a PD patient complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms, the possibility of EPS has to be kept in mind. Basic therapeutic tactics for EPS include appropriate use of steroids. If the state of bowel obstruction persists, laparotomy and enterolysis should be performed to obtain a complete cure. It is now recognized that EPS is not a fatal complication of PD.