Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired disorder of the peripheral nervous system with a probable auto-immune pathogenesis. The nature of the responsible autoantigens is unclear in most patients. We used the Western immunoblot technique to seek antibodies to peripheral nerve protein antigens. Sera from eight of 32 (25%) CIDP patients, 12 of 37 (32%) Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients, zero of 30 (0%) chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy patients and two of 39 (5%) healthy control subjects contained anti-peripheral nerve protein antibodies. The frequency of such antibodies was significantly greater in both CIDP (p = 0.04) and GBS (p = 0.003) patients than in normal control subjects. For CIDP patients, there were non-significant trends for antibodies to be more common in females and in those who responded to treatment with either intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange. The commonest antibodies were directed against a band at 28 kDa, resembling that labelled by a monoclonal antibody against myelin protein zero (P0). Six CIDP and seven GBS patients' sera reacted with this band. These results support the view that antibodies to myelin proteins, and especially P0, are present in the serum of some patients with CIDP and GBS.