Predictors of vaginal bleeding during the first two trimesters of pregnancy

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2005 Jul;19(4):276-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2005.00655.x.


This study evaluates maternal age, race, cigarette smoking, prior spontaneous abortion, prior induced abortion, and prior preterm birth in relation to vaginal bleeding during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Information on vaginal bleeding and predictors came from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, which enrolled 2806 pregnant women at 24-29 weeks' gestation during 1995-2000 in central North Carolina, USA. Generalised estimating equations were applied to take into account repeated episodes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. Women with advanced maternal age and passive smoking exposure were more likely to experience more intense vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, as were women with prior preterm birth. More intense bleeding was also more likely to be reported among women with multiple prior spontaneous abortions or multiple prior induced abortions, but not among women with a single prior spontaneous or induced abortion. The combination of prior spontaneous and induced abortion showed a dose-response association with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Habitual / complications
  • Abortion, Induced / adverse effects
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Obstetric Labor, Premature / complications
  • Placenta Diseases / complications
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / etiology*
  • Pregnancy Trimester, First
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Second
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology*