Addressing the global cardiovascular risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome in the southeastern United States, part II: treatment recommendations for management of the global cardiovascular risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome

Am J Med Sci. 2005 Jun;329(6):292-305. doi: 10.1097/00000441-200506000-00009.


An aggressive global approach to screening and to the management of the metabolic syndrome is recommended to slow the growth of the syndrome throughout the United States. Prevention should begin in childhood with healthy nutrition, daily physical activity, and annual measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure beginning at 3 years of age. Such screenings will identify cardiovascular risk factors early, allow the health care provider to define global cardiovascular risk with the COSEHC Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Tool, and allow treatment of each risk factor. Lifelong lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic therapy will be required in most patients. Antihypertensive therapy for these patients should begin with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker unless a compelling indication for another drug is present. Metformin should be considered the first drug for glucose control in the patient with type 2 diabetes. A statin should be used initially for hyperlipidemia unless contraindicated. Combinations of antihypertensive, antiglycemic, and lipid-lowering agents will often be required.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / complications
  • Hyperlipidemias / therapy*
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / therapy*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Life Style
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / therapy*
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Risk Factors
  • Southeastern United States


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors