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Review
. 2005 Jun;83(3):396-404.
doi: 10.1139/o05-042.

Chromatin Architecture and Functions: The Role(s) of poly(ADP-RIBOSE) Polymerase and poly(ADPribosyl)ation of Nuclear Proteins

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Review

Chromatin Architecture and Functions: The Role(s) of poly(ADP-RIBOSE) Polymerase and poly(ADPribosyl)ation of Nuclear Proteins

Maria Rosaria Faraone-Mennella. Biochem Cell Biol. .

Abstract

Epigenetic states that allow chromatin fidelity inheritance can be mediated by several factors. One of them, histone variants and their modifications (including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and ubiquitylation) create distinct patterns of signals read by other proteins, and are strictly related to chromatin remodelling, which is necessary for the specific expression of a gene, and for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. In the framework of chromatin-controlling factors, the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins, catalysed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs), has been implicated in the regulation of both physiological and pathological events (gene expression/amplification, cellular division/differentiation, DNA replication, malignant transformation, and apoptotic cell death). The involvement of PARPs in this scenario has raised doubts about the epigenetic value of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, because it is generally activated after DNA damage. However, one emerging view suggests that both the product of this reaction, poly(ADP-ribose), and PARPs, particularly PARP 1, play a fundamental role in recruiting protein targets to specific sites and (or) in interacting physically with structural and regulatory factors, through highly reproducible and inheritable mechanisms, often independent of DNA breaks. The interplay of PARPs with protein factors, and the combinatorial effect of poly(ADPribosyl)ation with other post-translational modifications has shed new light on the potential and versatility of this dynamic reaction.

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