Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with more rapid decline of renal function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

Clin Nephrol. 2005 Jun;63(6):429-36. doi: 10.5414/cnp63429.


Aims: Hypomagnesemia has been implicated in adversely affecting diabetic complications. This is a retrospective study designed to determine whether there is any association between serum magnesium concentration [Mg2+] and the rate of renal function deterioration, as determined by the slope of serum creatinine reciprocals versus time (1/SCr-vs-t), in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2).

Materials and methods: DM2 patients without known kidney disease seen at Olive View-UCLA Medical Center for any reason during January-March 2001 were included. For each patient, all available data from our electronic database for [Mg2+], hemoglobin A(1C) (HbA(1C), serum creatinine (SCr), lipid profiles, routine urinary analysis, as well as history of hypertension and pharmacy profiles were retrieved. The average of all parameters obtained and linear regression analyses for the slope of 1/SCr-vs-t plot were performed for each patient. Patients were stratified by gender and divided into four groups based on increasing [Mg2+]. Correlations between each parameter including the slope of 1/SCr-vs-t and the four magnesium groups were analyzed.

Results: 252 males and 298 females with a mean follow-up of 62.6 +/- 22.5 months were included. Patients belonging to lower [Mg2+] groups for both genders had significantly worse slopes of 1/SCr-vs-t plot independent of the presence of hypertension and use of ACEI/ARB, diuretics, HMG-CoA enzyme inhibitors or aspirin. In a multivariate regression analysis controlling for age, HbA(1C) and various components of the lipid profile, [Mg2+] remained an independent predictor for the slope of 1/SCr-vs-t. A trend for worse proteinuria based on routine urinary analysis was observed among patients belonging to the lowest [Mg2+] group.

Conclusions: Lower [Mg2+] is associated with a faster renal function deterioration rate in DM2 patients.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / blood*
  • Magnesium Deficiency / blood*
  • Magnesium Deficiency / etiology
  • Magnesium Deficiency / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Proteinuria / blood*
  • Proteinuria / complications
  • Proteinuria / physiopathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Creatinine
  • Magnesium