In rheumatoid arthritis, T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells invade the synovial membranes, establishing complex microstructures that promote inflammatory/tissue destructive lesions. B cell involvement has been considered to be limited to autoantibody production. However, recent studies suggest that B cells support rheumatoid disease through other mechanisms. A critical element of rheumatoid synovitis is the process of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, with highly efficient lymphoid architectures established in a nonlymphoid tissue site. Rheumatoid synovitis recapitulates the pathways of lymph node formation, and B cells play a key role in this process. Furthermore, studies of rheumatoid lesions implanted in immunodeficient mice suggest that T cell activation in synovitis is B cell dependent, indicating the role played by B cells in presenting antigens and providing survival signals.