Recent evidence highlighted the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as key recognition structures of the innate immune system. The activation of TLRs initiates the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, tissue destructive enzymes, and type I interferons. In addition, TLR signalling plays an important role in the activation and direction of the adaptive immune system by the upregulation of costimulatory molecules of antigen presenting cells. Considering the important role of TLR signalling as a critical link between innate and adaptive immunity it has been proposed that a dysregulation in TLR signalling might be associated with autoimmunity. In this review, recent studies on TLR signal transduction pathways activated by corresponding ligands are summarized and evidence for a possible role of TLR signalling in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed.