Risk factors for clinical stress fractures in male military recruits: a prospective cohort study

Bone. 2005 Aug;37(2):267-73. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2005.04.016.


This prospective study was aimed at evaluating risk factors for symptomatic stress fractures among 179 Finnish male military recruits, aged 18 to 20 years. The subjects were studied in the very beginning of the military service of 6 to 12 months in summer. Bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and at the hip and heel ultrasound investigation was performed. Blood was sampled for determination of serum total and free testosterone, total and free estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), procollagen type I N propeptide, total and carboxylated osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), as well as for studying the XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene and the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene. Urine was collected for the determination of N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen. Muscle strength was measured and Cooper's test was performed. Current exercise, smoking, calcium intake, and alcohol consumption were recorded using a questionnaire. During military service, 15 men experienced a stress fracture, diagnosed with X-ray in 14 and with nuclear magnetic resonance in one man. Those who experienced a fracture were taller than those who did not (P = 0.047). The result of Cooper's test was worse in the fracture group than in the non-fracture group (P = 0.026). Femoral neck and total hip BMC and BMD, adjusted for age, weight, height, exercise, smoking, and alcohol and calcium intake were lower (P = 0.021-0.041) for the fracture group. Stress fractures associated with higher iPTH levels (P = 0.022) but not with lower 25-OHD levels. Bone turnover markers as well as sex hormone and SHBG levels were similar for men with and without stress fracture. There was no difference in the genetic analyses between the groups. In conclusion, tall height, poor physical conditioning, low hip BMC and BMD, as well as high serum PTH level are risk factors for stress fractures in male Finnish military recruits. Given the poor vitamin D status of young Finnish men, intervention studies of vitamin D supplementation to lower serum PTH levels and to possibly reduce the incidence of stress fractures are warranted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acid Phosphatase / blood
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Bone Density
  • Collagen Type I / blood
  • Estradiol / blood
  • Fractures, Stress / classification
  • Fractures, Stress / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / blood
  • Male
  • Military Personnel*
  • Osteocalcin / blood
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics
  • Receptors, Estrogen / genetics
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin / analysis
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
  • Testosterone / blood
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood


  • Collagen Type I
  • Isoenzymes
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
  • Osteocalcin
  • Vitamin D
  • Testosterone
  • Estradiol
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase