Plant disease resistance is the consequence of an innate defense mechanism mediated by Resistance (R) genes . The conserved structure of one class of R protein is reminiscent of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins-immune-response perception modules in animal cells [2, 3, and 4]. The Arabidopsis snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive, 1) mutant contains a mutation in a TIR-NBS-LRR-type of R gene that renders resistance responses constitutively active without interaction with pathogens . Few components of the downstream signaling network activated by snc1 are known. To search for regulators of R-gene-mediated resistance, we screened for genetic suppressors of snc1. Three alleles of the mutant mos6 (modifier of snc1, 6) partially suppressed constitutive-resistance responses and immunity to virulent pathogens in snc1. Furthermore, the mos6-1 single mutant exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility to a virulent oomycete pathogen. MOS6, identified by positional cloning, encodes importin alpha3, one of eight alpha importins in Arabidopsis . alpha importins mediate the import of specific proteins across the nuclear envelope. We previously reported that MOS3, a protein homologous to human nucleoporin 96, is required for constitutive resistance in snc1 . Our data highlight an essential role for nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, especially protein import, in plant innate immunity.