We investigated the in vitro influence of breathing patterns on lung dose (LD) and particle size distribution in an infant upper airway cast model in order to determine the optimal particle size for nebulized aerosol delivery to infants. Budesol (nebulizer solution of budesonide) delivery from a perforated vibrating membrane nebulizer (eFlow Baby functional prototype) through an upper airway cast of a nine month old infant (SAINT-model) was measured at a fixed respiratory rate (RR) of 30 breaths per minute (bpm) and a tidal volume (Vt) of 50, 100, and 200 mL, respectively, and at a fixed Vt of 100 mL and a RR of 30, 60, and 78 bpm, respectively. LD expressed as a percentage of the nominal dose (ND; range, 5.8-30.3%) decreased with increasing Vt (p < 0.001) and with increasing RR (p < 0.001). Median mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) after passage (range, 2.4-3.4 microm) through the upper airway cast showed a negative correlation with increasing Vt (p < 0.001) and with increasing RR (p = 0.015). Particles available as LD for all simulated breathing pattern showed a particle size distribution with a MMAD of 2.4 microm and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.56. From our in vitro study, we conclude that the optimal particle size for nebulized aerosols for inhalation therapy for infants should have a MMAD of <2.4 microm.