Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is a widely recognized feature of human breast cancer and inhibitors of the enzyme have antitumor effects in a subset of tumor settings. Previously, we demonstrated that direct overexpression of COX-2 under control of the mammary-specific MMTV promoter/enhancer, was itself oncogenic and lead to the induction of mammary tumors in multiparous, outbred CD1 mice. In the present study, we provide evidence that COX-2 dependent tumor progression can also be studied in FVB/N, an inbred strain widely used for analysis of breast cancer progression. In these mice, the human COX-2 transgene was strongly induced during pregnancy/lactation and mammary tumors developed after multiple pregnancies. However, crossing the COX-2 FVB/N mice with the C57BL6 strain resulted in loss of the mammary tumorigenic phenotype despite the fact that the human COX-2 gene was induced. Treatment of the COX-2 transgenic mice in the FVB/N strain with celecoxib (1600 ppm), a COX-2 selective inhibitor, resulted significant reduction in tumor size and multiplicity when compared to transgenic mice fed with control chow. SC-560 (20 ppm), a COX-1 selective inhibitor did not have significant effect on tumorigenesis. These studies suggest that FVB/N is a susceptible mouse strain well suited to the study of COX-2 mediated tumor progression and may provide a tool for the identification of interacting genes and therapeutic treatments for this clinically important target.