Dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus and the risk of prostate cancer

Eur Urol. 2005 Jul;48(1):27-33. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2005.03.023. Epub 2005 Apr 8.


Objectives: A relation of prostate cancer risk with calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus has been suggested, but remains controversial.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Italy in 1991-2002. Cases were 1294 men with incident prostate cancer, and controls were 1451 men admitted to hospital for acute non-neoplastic diseases. Odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression.

Results: Compared to the lowest one quintile of dietary calcium intake the OR was 1.18 for the highest, 1.01 for an increment of 622 mg/day of calcium, and 1.29 (95% CI 0.78-2.13) for 2000 mg/day or more of calcium. The OR of prostate cancer for the highest quintile of dietary intake of vitamin D and phosphorus were 1.33 and 1.20 respectively.

Conclusions: This study shows no material association of dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus with prostate cancer risk.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cheese
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Food Preferences
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Milk
  • Odds Ratio
  • Phosphorus, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Phosphorus, Dietary
  • Vitamin D