Filamentous fungi are commonly used in the fermentation industry for the large-scale production of proteins--mainly industrial enzymes. Recent advances in fungal genomics and related experimental technologies such as gene arrays and proteomics are rapidly changing the approaches to the development and use of filamentous fungi as hosts for the production of both homologous and heterologous gene products. The emphasis is moving towards sourcing new genes of interest through database mining and unravelling the circuits related to fungal gene regulation, applying, for example, transcriptomics. However, although heterologous fungal proteins are efficiently expressed, expression of gene products from other organisms is subject to several bottlenecks that reduce yield. Current approaches emphasize the study of pathways involved in protein modification and degradation in general rather than gene-by-gene approaches.