After the smoke clears: environmental and occupational risks for carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract

Cancer J. Mar-Apr 2005;11(2):96-103. doi: 10.1097/00130404-200503000-00002.


Both environmental and occupational exposures are associated with the development of carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, although most squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract are related to smoking and drinking. This review discusses environmental and occupational risk factors, other than tobacco and alcohol, for carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and the difficulties encountered when attempts are made to study these environmental and occupational exposures. However, this is not an all-inclusive review; rather, it is designed to give the reader an understanding of the topic, to allow for appropriate counseling of patients, and perhaps to advance public health initiatives.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology*
  • Head and Neck Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution