During tumorigenesis, reciprocal changes in stromal fibroblasts and tumor cells induce changes to the neoplastic microenvironmental landscape. In stromagenesis, both the complex network of bi-directional stromal fibroblastic signaling pathways and the stromal extracellular matrix are modified. The presence of a 'primed' stroma during the early, reversible stage of tumorigenesis is optimal for stromal-directed therapeutic intervention. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems have been developed that mimic the in vivo microenvironment. These systems provide unique experimental tools to identify early alterations in stromagenesis that are supportive of tumor progression with the ultimate goal of blocking neoplastic permissiveness and restoring normal phenotypes.