Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and diseases of expanded polyglutamine are associated with insoluble protein aggregates and neuronal death. A role for transglutaminase in the stabilization of these aggregates has been proposed. Diseases of polyglutamine expansion have been the most thoroughly investigated and a large body of studies supports the causative role of transglutaminase in aggregation of expanded polyglutamine. However none of the evidence is conclusive. Indisputable evidence of cross-linking by transglutaminase will be required in order to provide firm support for therapeutic measures based on the role of transglutaminase.