The inhibitor kappaB-ortholog Cactus is necessary for normal neuromuscular function in Drosophila melanogaster

Neuroscience. 2005;134(2):397-406. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.04.046.


The Drosophila inhibitor-kappaB ortholog Cactus acts as an inhibitor of the Rel-transcription factors Dorsal and Dif. In blastoderm cells and immune competent cells, Cactus inhibits Dorsal and Dif by preventing their nuclear localization. Cactus, Dorsal and Dif are also expressed in somatic muscles, where Cactus and Dorsal, but not Dif, are enriched at the neuromuscular junction. Mutations in dorsal cause neuromuscular defects and mislocalization of Cactus. Here, we investigated whether mutations in cactus affect the neuromuscular system and subcellular localization of Dorsal and Dif. Using locomotion assays, as well as physiological and immunochemical methods, we found that wild type Cactus is necessary for the normal function of the larval neuromuscular system. The phenotype comprises i) altered bouton numbers and impaired neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junctions in the abdominal segments, ii) muscular weakness and iii) poor locomotion performance, probably reflecting a general neuromuscular impairment. Interestingly, in cactus mutants the subcellular localization of Dorsal and Dif in muscle is not affected, whereas cactus protein is not detected in the nucleus. This suggests, together with the similarities between the phenotypes induced by cactus and dorsal mutations, that in larval muscles the function of Cactus might be cooperation to the transcriptional activity of Rel proteins more than their cytoplasmic retention. The similarities with inhibitor-kappaB/nuclear factor kappaB interactions and muscle pathology in mammals point to Drosophila as a suitable experimental system to clarify the complex interactions of these proteins in muscle postembryonic development and activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blastoderm / physiology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Drosophila Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Drosophila Proteins / genetics
  • Drosophila Proteins / physiology*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / embryology
  • Drosophila melanogaster / growth & development
  • Drosophila melanogaster / physiology*
  • Larva
  • Locomotion
  • Motor Activity / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / innervation
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Neuromuscular Junction / physiology*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Phosphoproteins / physiology*
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Synapses / physiology
  • Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Dif protein, Drosophila
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Rel protein, Drosophila
  • Transcription Factors
  • dl protein, Drosophila
  • cact protein, Drosophila