In 15 elderly individuals lyophilized Bifidobacterium bifidum (BB) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) (Infloran) were administered in capsules (two capsules 4 times per day) for 28 days, while in 10 elderly controls placebo were given the same posology and for an equal period of time. The effects of this treatment on the immune system both at the periphery or the intestinal level were investigated. Results show that BB and LA significantly reduced the colonic inflammatory infiltration, without altering T, B and Leu7 + cell percentage. At the same time, a significant increase of B cell frequency in the peripheral blood was noted, in comparison to controls. The overall results suggest that the regular administration of BB and LA leads to a modulation of the immunological and inflammatory response in elderly subjects.