MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 20-25 nucleotides RNA molecules that have been shown to regulate gene expressions in a variety of eukaryotic systems. miRNAs are widespread in eukaryotes and several hundred of miRNAs have been identified, but still a lot of miRNAs have not been detected in various eukaryotic organisms. However, it is not an easy work to clone miRNAs by traditional methods. Here, we describe the identification of 27 miRNAs from a human fetal liver cDNA library by a novel cloning method. Low molecular weight RNA fraction (< or = 200 nt) from fetal liver tissue was extracted, and polyadenylated by poly(A) polymerase. A 5' RNA adaptor was ligated to poly(A)-tailed RNA using T4 RNA ligase. After reverse transcription, the cDNA was amplified by PCR with two adaptor primers. The PCR product with a size about 109 bp was recovered and cloned into T vector. After sequencing, database searching, and expression profiling, 5 novel miRNAs were discovered among other 22 known miRNAs in human fetal liver. These finding indicate that a large diverse population of miRNAs may function to regulate gene expression in hepatocyte.