Given the success of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in treating the systemic manifestations in a number of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), we evaluated the effect of ERT on the mouse model of sialidosis. This glycoproteinosis, which affects primarily the reticuloendothelial (RE) system, is caused by deficiency of lysosomal neuraminidase (NEU1) and consequent accumulation of sialylated glycoconjugates. NEU1 lacks a functional mannose-6-phosphate recognition marker and is not endocytosed by mammalian cells. However, the enzyme produced in insect cells has features that allow its effective uptake by RE cells and macrophages via the mannose receptor, and therefore represent an alternative method of therapy. In this study we tested the therapeutic efficacy of baculovirus (BV) expressed mouse neuraminidase (Neu1) in sialidosis mice. Four-week-old Neu1-/- mice were first injected intravenously with a single dose of the recombinant enzyme for assessment of the half-life of mannosylated Neu1 in vivo. Afterwards, a short-term ERT with a total of five enzyme injections over a 2-week period was performed for evaluation of phenotype correction. Neu1 infused alone or co-administered with its associated protein, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) was effectively taken up by resident macrophages in many tissues. Restored Neu1 activity persisted for up to 4 days, depending on the tissue, and resulted in a significant reduction of lysosomal storage. However, beyond 2 weeks of treatment, ERT mice developed a severe immune response towards the exogenous Neu1 enzyme. These results may have important implications for ERT in sialidosis patients.