Background: Less than 50% of all high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients experience lasting disease-free survival. Risk-adapted treatment strategies require better tools for prediction of outcome. This investigation aimed to assess the value of positron emission tomography with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) after two to three cycles of chemotherapy for prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty-one patients with high-grade NHL underwent FDG-PET. The therapy response on FDG-PET was correlated to PFS and OS using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox regression analyses were employed to test for independence of known pretreatment prognostic factors.
Results: Fifty FDG-PET scans were negative, 19 scans showed minimal residual uptake (MRU), and 52 scans were positive. The estimated 5 year PFS was 88.8% for the PET-negative group, 59.3% for the MRU group, and 16.2% for the PET-positive group. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed strong associations between FDG-PET results and PFS (P <0.0001) and OS (P <0.01). Early interim FDG-PET was independent of the other prognostic factors.
Conclusions: Early interim FDG-PET is an accurate and independent predictor of PFS and OS. An early assessment of chemotherapy response with FDG-PET could provide the basis for selection of patients for alternative therapeutic strategies.