Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of assessment instruments used in psychological research with children and families

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2005 Jun;8(2):135-47. doi: 10.1007/s10567-005-4752-1.


With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, having reliable and valid measures that can be used in a number of languages and cultures is critical. Few guidelines or standards have been established in psychology for the translation and cultural adaptation of instruments. Usually little is reported in research publications about the translation and adaptation process thus making it difficult for journal readers and reviewers to adequately evaluate the equivalency and quality of an instrument. In this study, issues related to the translation and adaptation of assessment instruments for use in other cultures and/or languages are addressed. Existing literature on translation is reviewed and examples from the clinical child and family psychology field are given to illustrate relevant issues. Suggestions are made for avoiding common translation errors.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Child
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Family / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Translations*