Adolescent birth rates, total homicides, and income inequality in rich countries

Am J Public Health. 2005 Jul;95(7):1181-3. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.056721.


Income inequality has been associated with both homicides and births to adolescents in the United States and with homicides internationally. We found that adolescent birth rates and general homicide rates were closely correlated with each other internationally (r= 0.95) and within the United States (r = 0.74) and with inequality internationally and within the United States. These results, coupled with no association with absolute income, suggested that violence and births to adolescents may reflect gender-differentiated responses to low social status and could be reduced by reducing income inequality.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Birth Rate
  • Developed Countries*
  • Female
  • Homicide / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Income*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Adolescence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Social Class
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Violence