Natriuretic peptides are involved in the regulation of volume homeostasis. Their levels generally are increased in the setting of volume expansion and act on multiple effector systems to cause vasodilation and natriuresis in an effort to return volume status back to normal. In patients with end-stage renal disease, the natriuretic capabilities of these peptides are limited. However, there has been much interest in the potential applicability of measurement of these peptides as a surrogate marker of volume status and in the determination of dry weight. Furthermore, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide can serve as markers of left ventricular dysfunction and may have utility in determining cardiac prognosis in patients on long-term dialysis therapy.