How to improve quality assurance in fluorometry: fluorescence-inherent sources of error and suited fluorescence standards

J Fluoresc. 2005 May;15(3):337-62. doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2630-3.


The scope of this paper is to illustrate the need for an improved quality assurance in fluorometry. For this purpose, instrumental sources of error and their influences on the reliability and comparability of fluorescence data are highlighted for frequently used photoluminescence techniques ranging from conventional macro- and microfluorometry over fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to microarray technology as well as in vivo fluorescence imaging. Particularly, the need for and requirements on fluorescence standards for the characterization and performance validation of fluorescence instruments, to enhance the comparability of fluorescence data, and to enable quantitative fluorescence analysis are discussed. Special emphasis is dedicated to spectral fluorescence standards and fluorescence intensity standards.