Inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases in childhood comprise a wide spectrum of heterogeneous conditions. We studied 4 children with primary CNS vasculitis in whom results of magnetic resonance imaging studies were abnormal but results of conventional angiography were normal. We determined that angiography-negative, biopsy-confirmed primary small-vessel CNS vasculitis is a previously unrecognized distinct disease entity in children. The diagnosis must be considered in a child with a progressive, acquired diffuse or focal neurologic deficit, even if the results of conventional angiography are normal. A lesional brain biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. Use of immunosuppressive therapy plus aspirin leads to an excellent neurologic outcome.