Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with the development of cancer in the stomach, but both positive and negative associations were reported with colorectal neoplasia. We sought to determine whether H. pylori is associated with colon neoplasia in Japanese population. We examined 332 patients who underwent routine high-resolution total colonoscopy and serologic testing for IgG antibodies agonist H. pylori. Subjects who received cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors or previous eradication therapy and those with borderline titer levels were excluded from data analysis (n = 27). Seronegative control subjects were from the same study population to maximize the representativeness. There were no significant differences in age and gender between the 2 patient groups. A significant increase in the incidence of adenomatous polyps (p < 0.0001) and decrease in normal colonoscopic findings (p < 0.0005) were observed in seropositive patients than those seronegative. Our study indicates an etiological link of H. pylori infection to colorectal neoplasia and the need of routine colonoscopy in seropositive patients.
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