Identifying regions of the Drosophila melanogaster genome that have been recent targets of positive Darwinian selection will provide evidence for adaptations that have helped this species to colonize temperate habitats. We have begun a search for such genomic regions by analyzing multiple loci (about 250) dispersed across the X chromosome in a putatively ancestral population from East Africa and a derived European population. For both populations we found evidence for past changes in population size. We estimated that a major bottleneck associated with the colonization of Europe occurred about 3,500-16,000 years ago. We also found that while this bottleneck can account for most of the reduction in variation observed in the European sample, there is a deficit of polymorphism in some genomic regions that cannot be explained by demography alone.