Purpose: To prospectively compare diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging anisotropy measurements of white matter (WM) regions in early and late treatment groups of Krabbe disease patients treated with stem cell transplantation.
Materials and methods: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and was compliant with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act; informed consent was obtained from the families of all patients. Patients with early-onset Krabbe disease (four girls and three boys) underwent diffusion-tensor MR imaging before and after stem cell transplantation. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values from serial studies were compared in patients who underwent transplantation at less than 1 month (early group, two girls and one boy) and those who underwent transplantation at 5-8 months (late group, two girls and two boys). FA values were measured in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, the frontal WM, and the internal capsule; were compared with those of five age-matched children in the comparison group (normal MR images and no proved neurologic disease); and were expressed as a ratio. Images obtained after transplantation were evaluated at approximately 1 (n = 7), 2 (n = 6), 3 (n = 1), and 4 (n = 1) years.
Results: Before transplantation, mean FA ratios in the early group for all four WM regions ranged between 97% and 117%. At 1 year, mean FA ratios at all locations were either 92% or 93%. At 2 years after transplantation, mean FA ratios were between 83% and 92%. In one patient imaged at 3 years, the mean FA ratio was 97%; in another patient imaged at 4 years, the mean FA ratio was 77%. Before transplantation, mean FA ratios in the late group ranged between 55% and 74%. Mean FA ratios were between 37% and 50% at 1 year after transplantation and between 36% and 39% at 2 years.
Conclusion: All patients had decreases in FA ratios over time. The early group had higher initial FA ratios and lower subsequent decreases, which may indicate amelioration of the dysmyelinating process.
Copyright RSNA, 2005