Comparison of 1- versus 2-person bag-valve-mask techniques for manikin ventilation of infants and children

Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jul;46(1):37-42. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2005.02.005.


Study objective: We compare the mean tidal volumes per weight and peak pressures generated by the 1- and 2-person techniques of bag-valve-mask ventilation in a pediatric model.

Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive study in which postgraduate year 1, postgraduate year 2, and postgraduate year 3 pediatric residents, postgraduate year 2 emergency medicine residents, pediatric emergency department nurses, transport personnel, and paramedics were asked to perform 1- and 2-person bag-valve-mask ventilation on infant and child manikins. Participants were randomly assigned a partner and performed both techniques. Tidal volume and peak pressure were recorded every 15 seconds for 3 minutes by a blinded assistant.

Results: Seventy participants, 10 in each group, completed the study. Overall, for the infant- and child-manikin groups, the 2-person technique generated higher mean tidal volume per weight than the 1-person technique (infant: 7.2 versus 5.9; child: 8.8 versus 6.1). Overall, the 2-person technique generated higher mean peak pressures than the 1-person technique (infant: 27.4 versus 22.0; child: 27.2 versus 21.8). Similar results were found among all provider groups. Paramedics were the only providers able to generate a recommended median tidal volume per weight of 10 mL/kg in the child manikin group when using either technique and were the only providers, when using the 2-person technique, to generate a mean tidal volume per weight of 10 mL/kg in the infant group.

Conclusion: Two-person bag-valve-mask ventilation provided greater mean tidal volumes per weight and peak pressures in the infant- and child-manikin model compared with the 1-person technique.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Allied Health Personnel
  • Ambulances
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Emergency Medicine / education
  • Emergency Nursing / instrumentation
  • Emergency Nursing / methods
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Internship and Residency
  • Manikins
  • Pediatric Assistants / education
  • Pediatric Nursing / instrumentation
  • Pediatric Nursing / methods
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiration, Artificial / instrumentation*
  • Respiration, Artificial / methods*
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Single-Blind Method