Frequency of coronary artery disease and left ventricle dysfunction in cocaine users

Am J Cardiol. 1992 Jun 15;69(19):1549-52. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(92)90701-y.

Abstract

To evaluate the spectrum of coronary artery disease (CAD) in cocaine users, coronary angiograms obtained from 33 patients (26 men [79%] and 7 women [21%], mean age 37 years) with history of cocaine use and cardiac symptoms were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical indications for coronary angiograms included chest pain (n = 28), congestive failure (n = 4) and complete heart block (n = 1). Coronary angiograms were reviewed independently by 2 angiographers unaware of patient's clinical status. Thirteen patients (40%) had normal coronary angiograms, and 20 (60%) had CAD; 7 (21%) had mild CAD (less than or equal to 70% diameter stenosis), and 13 (40%) had significant CAD (greater than 70% diameter stenosis). Of 13 patients with significant CAD, 7 had 1-vessel, 4 had 2-vessel and 2 had 3-vessel CAD. There was enzymatic evidence of myocardial infarction in 12 of 33 patients (36%); all 12 had CAD (10 with significant and 2 with mild CAD). Mean age and number of risk factors (serum total cholesterol, cigarette smoking, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, family history of CAD, and obesity) in patients with CAD (mild or significant) and with normal coronary angiograms were not statistically different. Left ventricular ejection fraction was normal in 15 patients (45%) and depressed in 18 (55%). All patients with CAD and low ejection fractions (n = 12) had regional wall motion abnormalities, whereas all those with normal coronary arteries and low ejection fraction (n = 6) had global hypokinesia.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Angina Pectoris / etiology
  • Angina Pectoris / physiopathology
  • Cardiac Output / physiology
  • Cocaine*
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Disease / etiology*
  • Coronary Disease / physiopathology
  • Electrocardiography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction / etiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / physiopathology
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology*

Substances

  • Cocaine