A multicenter, double-masked, parallel-group clinical study compared the efficacy and safety of lodoxamide 0.1% ophthalmic solution and cromolyn sodium 4% ophthalmic solution in 120 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. On various follow-up visits, the clinical efficacy of lodoxamide 0.1% was statistically superior to cromolyn sodium 4% in alleviating four of the primary symptoms (itching, tearing, foreign-body sensation, and discomfort) and five of the primary signs (Trantas' dots, palpebral conjunctival changes, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, erythema/swelling of the eyelids and periorbital tissues, and epithelial disease). At no time during the study was cromolyn sodium 4% statistically superior to lodoxamide 0.1% in demonstrating improvements in clinical signs and symptoms of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. The physician's clinical judgment of patients' response to treatment showed lodoxamide 0.1% effected a greater and earlier improvement than cromolyn sodium 4%. Both drugs were safe for topical ophthalmic use when used four times daily for up to 28 days.