Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of insulin and glucose on myocardial vasodilator function in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Background: The relative importance of plasma insulin and glucose levels on the abnormal vasodilator function observed in T1DM is unknown.
Methods: Twenty T1DM patients underwent positron emission tomography studies to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) (in ml/g/min) at rest (MBFr) and during adenosine (MBFa), both under baseline metabolic conditions and then during either hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HE) (n = 10; 40 +/- 9 years, 8 female subjects, hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] 7.8 +/- 1.1%) or hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp (HH) (n = 10; 44 +/- 12 years, 8 female subjects, hemoglobin A1c 7.7 +/- 0.6%).
Results: Both groups showed similar MBFr and MBFa under baseline metabolic conditions (p = NS). Compared with baseline conditions, MBFr increased in the HH group (p < 0.005), whereas it did not change in the HE group. Compared with baseline conditions, MBFa decreased in the HH group (p < 0.05) but did not change in the HE group. Myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) (MBFa/MBFr) was similar between the HE and HH groups at baseline (p = NS). During clamp, MPR tended to decrease in the HH group (p < 0.1) but did not change in the HE group (p = NS) when compared with baseline conditions. However, during the clamp MPR was significantly lower in the HH group when compared with the HE group (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions: In the short term, hyperglycemia has a deleterious effect on myocardial vasodilator function, which outweighs the beneficial effect of hyperinsulinemia.