During the last few years there have been major advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of liver regeneration. These advances derived to a great extent from the increased use of transgenic and knockout mice. In parallel with the experimental work, human partial liver transplantation from cadavers and living donors continues to increase, stimulating hepatologists and surgeons to learn more about the mechanisms that regulate and promote regeneration. Thus, knowledge generated from laboratory work in rodents can be applied to clinical problems, while data on human transplantation can also guide the design of experimental work. In this review, we discuss a few selected aspects of liver regeneration that are of interest in both the laboratory and the clinic.