Apolipoprotein A5 is a recently discovered apolipoprotein involved primarily in triglyceride metabolism. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been investigated since the initial report. The -1131T>C polymorphism has been associated with higher triglyceride levels and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as with susceptibility to coronary heart disease. However, no study has so far emphasized on the association of a dietary intervention with apolipoprotein A5 polymorphisms. In a group of 606 hyperlipaemic and overweight men, we investigated how a short-term fat restriction affects lipid traits and body mass index (BMI) in wildtype and carriers of the -1131T>C polymorphism. Our result was that the reduction of BMI was significantly higher in C allele carriers (p=0.0021). Since the -1131T>C polymorphism predisposes to coronary heart disease, a restriction diet is an important therapeutic approach in -1131T>C carriers.