Impact of soil amendments on reducing phosphorus losses from runoff in sod

J Environ Qual. 2005 Jul 5;34(4):1415-21. doi: 10.2134/jeq2004.0481. Print Jul-Aug 2005.


Received for publication December 22, 2004. Research was initiated to study the interaction between soil amendments (lime, gypsum, and ferrous sulfate) and dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus [RP(<0.45)] losses from manure applications from concentrated runoff flow through a sod surface. Four run-over boxes (2.2-m2 surface area) were prepared for each treatment with a bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] sod surface (using sod blocks) and composted dairy manure was surface-applied at rates of 0, 4.5, 9, or 13.5 Mg ha-1. The three soil amendments were then applied to the boxes. Two 30-min runoff events were conducted and runoff water was collected at 10-min intervals and analyzed for RP(<0.45). Results indicated that the addition of ferrous sulfate was very effective at reducing the level of RP(<0.45). in runoff water, reducing RP(<0.45) from 1.3 mg L(-1) for the highest compost rate with no amendment to 0.2 mg L(-1) for the ferrous sulfate in the first 10 min of runoff. Lime and gypsum showed a small impact on reducing RP(<0.45), with a reduction in the first 10 min to 0.9 and 0.8 mg L(-1), respectively. The ferrous sulfate reduced the RP(<0.45) in the tank at the end of the first runoff event by 66.3% compared with no amendment. In the second runoff event, the ferrous sulfate was very effective at reducing RP(<0.45) in runoff, with no significant differences in RP(<0.45) with application of 13.5 Mg ha(-1) compost compared with no manure application. The results indicate that the addition of ferrous sulfate may greatly reduce RP(<0.45) losses in runoff and has considerable potential to be used on pasture, turfgrass, and filter strips to reduce the initial RP(<0.45) losses from manure application to the environment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium Compounds / chemistry
  • Calcium Sulfate / chemistry
  • Dairying
  • Ferrous Compounds / chemistry
  • Manure*
  • Oxides / chemistry
  • Phosphorus / analysis*
  • Phosphorus / chemistry*
  • Water Movements
  • Water Pollutants / analysis*
  • Water Pollution / prevention & control


  • Calcium Compounds
  • Ferrous Compounds
  • Manure
  • Oxides
  • Water Pollutants
  • Phosphorus
  • ferrous sulfate
  • lime
  • Calcium Sulfate