Gypsy embryo specifies ovule curvature by regulating ovule/integument development in rice

Planta. 2005 Oct;222(3):408-17. doi: 10.1007/s00425-005-1547-z. Epub 2005 Jul 7.


The embryo position in a seed is stable in most plant species, indicating the existence of a strict regulatory mechanism that specifies the embryo position in the seed. To elucidate this mechanism, we analyzed the gypsy embryo (gym) mutant of rice, in which the position of the mature embryo in the seed is altered at a low frequency. Analyses of early embryogenesis and ovule development showed that the ectopic embryo was derived from an ill-positioned egg cell, which resulted from the incomplete curvature of the ovule. Although the development of both the inner and outer integuments was impaired, the ovule curvature was associated closely with the extent of inner integument growth. Therefore, inner integument development controls ovule curvature in rice. The expression patterns of OSH1 and OsMADS13 indicated that, in gym, a small number of indeterminate cells are maintained on the style side of the ovule and then in the integument primordium at a low frequency. The prolonged survival of these indeterminate cells disturbs normal integument development. The gym fon2 double mutant suggests that GYM and FON2 are involved redundantly in floral meristem determinacy. Possible functions of the GYM gene and the ovule developmental mechanism are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism
  • MADS Domain Proteins / genetics
  • MADS Domain Proteins / metabolism
  • Mutation
  • Oryza / cytology
  • Oryza / embryology*
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Seeds / anatomy & histology
  • Seeds / cytology
  • Seeds / embryology*
  • Seeds / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism


  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • MADS Domain Proteins
  • OSH1 protein, Oryza sativa
  • Plant Proteins
  • Trans-Activators