Oligonucleotide-protamine-albumin nanoparticles: Protamine sulfate causes drastic size reduction

J Control Release. 2005 Aug 18;106(1-2):181-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.04.019.


Nanoparticles prepared by self-assembly from oligonucleotides (ONs), protamine free base, and human serum albumin ("ternary proticles") are spheres of diameters around 200 nm. Substitution of the protamine free base by protamine sulfate leads to proticles of only around 40 nm in diameter with otherwise unchanged properties. The availability of drug delivery systems of very similar composition but grossly different size may be advantageous when dealing with cells which show size-dependent particle uptake. These nanoparticles are promising candidates for ON delivery to cells because of the following reasons: (1) They are stable for several hours in solutions of up to physiological ionic strength; (2) they are efficiently taken up by cells; (3) after cellular uptake, they easily release the ONs even when these are present as phosphorothioates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Drug Carriers*
  • Fibroblasts
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Atomic Force
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Nanostructures*
  • Oligonucleotides / chemistry*
  • Oligonucleotides / metabolism
  • Protamines / chemistry*
  • Protamines / metabolism
  • Serum Albumin / chemistry*
  • Serum Albumin / metabolism
  • Thionucleotides / chemistry*
  • Thionucleotides / metabolism


  • Drug Carriers
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Protamines
  • Serum Albumin
  • Thionucleotides
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate