Mutations in the cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene (MYBPC3) are responsible for up to 50% of familial cases with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Compared to patients with mutations in other sarcomeric genes, patients with MYBPC3 mutations would have a milder form of the disease, with a lower incidence of sudden cardiac death. Because most of the mutations have been found in only one family, it is currently difficult to establish a correlation between a particular mutation and the HC phenotype. The aim of our study was to contribute to understanding of the role of MYBPC3 mutations in HC. We analysed the MYBPC3 exons and intron flanking regions in 10 patients from 10 families with at least two HC cases. After direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments, we found three new mutations in three families (V771M, V342D, and A627V). These changes affected evolutionary conserved amino acids and were not found in 100 healthy controls. The Ala 627>Val was found homozygous in a 47-year-old patient with a severe form of HC, while his mother and a nephew were heterozygous carriers and asymptomatic. This fact suggests a dosage effect for mutations at the MYPBC3 gene.