ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 26;334(2):386-94. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.06.097.


Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, beta-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Oncogene Proteins / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / metabolism*
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism*
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism*


  • Cdkn2a protein, mouse
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Atr protein, mouse
  • ATM protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Atm protein, mouse
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases