There is increasing evidence of cross-talk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in atherogenesis. Both dyslipidemia and RAS activation enhance the expression of a newly described receptor for oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). We postulated that the blockade of dyslipidemia with rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor and RAS with candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, would have a synergistic inhibitory effect on LOX-1 expression and atherogenesis. Apo-E knockout mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1% cholesterol, HC-diet) alone, or HC-diet with rosuvastatin (1mg/(kgd)), candesartan (1mg/(kgd)) or with both. Twelve weeks later the extent of atherosclerosis was determined by Sudan IV staining. Apo-E knockout mice on HC-diet had extensive atherosclerosis. Both rosuvastatin and candesartan decreased the extent of atherosclerosis (by 23 and 26%, respectively), despite the HC-diet; however, the combination of rosuvastatin and candesartan reduced atherosclerosis further (by 67%). Rosuvastatin decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol by over 50%, whereas candesartan had no effect. LOX-1 protein expression was found to be markedly up-regulated in HC-diet-fed apo-E knockout mice. While rosuvastatin and candesartan each had a small inhibitory effect on the expression of LOX-1 in the atherosclerotic tissues, the combination totally blocked the up-regulation of LOX-1. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression and phosphorylation were increased in apo-E knockout mice, attenuated by rosuvastatin or candesartan alone, and completely blocked by the combination of the two agents. P44/42 MAPK expression and phosphorylation were not affected by the HC-diet, rosuvastatin, candesartan, or their combination. This study demonstrates the potent effect of rosuvastatin and candesartan on atherogenesis, as well as on the expression of LOX-1 and on the activation of p38 MAPK, but not p44/42 MAPK.