The aim of this study was to examine the effect of proinsulin C-peptide on the autonomic nervous systems in rats. Intravenous administration of C-peptide gradually increased electrophysiological activity of the vagus nerves into the stomach and pancreas for at least 90 min. It also slightly increased gastric acid secretion that was suppressed by the treatment with atropine. Intraperitoneal injection of C-peptide did not affect the basal and stress-induced norepinephrine (NE) turnover rate, a biochemical index of sympathetic nerve activity. These results indicate that C-peptide increases parasympathetic nerve activity without affecting sympathetic nerve activity. This could explain, at least in part, the ameliorating effects of C-peptide on impaired cardiac autonomic nerve functions in patients with type 1 diabetes.