Objective: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is an aggressive form of endometrial cancer characterized by a high recurrence rate and a poor prognosis. Prior studies evaluating treatment of UPSC have been limited by small numbers of patients and inclusion of partially staged patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and vaginal cuff radiation in a large cohort of surgical stage I UPSC patients.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 74 stage I patients with UPSC who underwent complete surgical staging at our institution between 1987 and 2004.
Results: Stage IA patients were divided into two groups: patients with no cancer in the hysterectomy specimen (defined as no residual uterine disease) and patients with cancer in the hysterectomy specimen (defined as residual uterine disease). Stage IA patients with no residual uterine disease had no recurrences, regardless of adjuvant therapy (n = 12). Stage IA patients with residual uterine disease who were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy had no recurrences (n = 7). However, 6 of 14 (43%) stage IA patients with residual uterine disease who did not receive chemotherapy recurred. The 15 patients with stage IB UPSC who received platinum-based chemotherapy had no recurrences but 10 of the 13 (77%) stage IB patients who did not receive chemotherapy recurred. One of the 7 patients with stage IC UPSC who received platinum-based chemotherapy recurred and 4 of the 5 (80%) stage IC patients who did not receive chemotherapy recurred. Overall platinum-based chemotherapy was associated with improved disease-free survival (P < 0.01) and improved overall survival (P < 0.05) in patients with stage I UPSC. None of the 43 patients who received radiation to the vaginal cuff recurred locally, but 6 of the 31 (19%) patients who were not treated with vaginal radiation recurred at the cuff.
Conclusions: Platinum-based chemotherapy improves the disease-free and overall survival of patients with stage I UPSC and vaginal cuff radiation provides local control. Stage IA UPSC patients with no residual uterine disease can be observed but concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy and vaginal cuff radiation (referred to as chemoradiation) should be offered to all other stage I UPSC patients.