Variation in selected regions of blaTEM genes and promoters in Haemophilus influenzae

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Sep;56(3):481-4. doi: 10.1093/jac/dki238. Epub 2005 Jul 8.


Objectives: To determine if the TEM beta-lactamases of Haemophilus influenzae are TEM-1 or derivatives thereof and associated exclusively with the overlapping Pa/Pb promoters.

Methods: Single nucleotide specific PCR was used to discriminate the polymorphic nucleotides at positions 32 and 317 of the bla(TEM) genes of a collection of TEM-positive strains.

Results: All bla(TEM) genes were found to be bla(TEM-1) or derivatives thereof and none bla(TEM-2). The bla(TEM) genes were associated with the P3 promoter, the Pa/Pb promoters or a novel promoter produced as a result of a 135 bp deletion and a G162T substitution.

Conclusions: The genetic features of bla(TEM) genes in H. influenzae are different from those in Enterobacteriaceae and more variable than previously recognized.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Base Sequence
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Haemophilus influenzae / drug effects
  • Haemophilus influenzae / genetics*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Sequence Deletion
  • beta-Lactamases / drug effects
  • beta-Lactamases / genetics*


  • beta-Lactamases
  • beta-lactamase TEM-1
  • beta-lactamase TEM-2